Climate change over the years have become a global endemic issue due to its adverse effects on humans and the environment as a whole. Climate change is any significant long term change in the expected patterns of average weather of a region over a significant period of time — it can become warmer or colder.
Climate Change has disastrous consequences and Nigeria has begun to experience its effects in recent time; this explains the very hot temperatures and massive floods etc across the country lately. The need to be part of the solution to this ailing problem cannot be over emphasized. It is therefore imperative that for an individual or group of people to effectively join the train of solution finders there has to be a familiarization with the common terms used in relation to the issue
- Carbon Dioxide (CO2): This is the primary greenhouse gas and driver of climate change. Carbon dioxide can be seen as a waste gas released by humans and animals and sucked away by plants and trees.
- Greenhouse Gas: These are chemical compounds found in the atmosphere. Some of these gases include carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, and other man-made gases. The excess of these gases in the atmosphere causes great harm to the climate and humans that live within the confines of the affected environment.
- Emissions: are gases that are released into the atmosphere from human activities including burning fossil fuel, industrial and agricultural waste etc.
- Fossil Fuel: these are sources of non-renewable energy formed from the remains of living organisms that were buried millions of years ago. Fossil fuel burning like coal and oils are mainly to produce energy for various human activities. Fossil fuel is the origin of all greenhouse gases.
- Global Warming: Global warming, we must note, is not the same thing as climate change but it is one of the signs of climate change. Global warming is an increase in the earth’s average surface temperature from greenhouse emissions caused by human activities
Climate change is one of the contemporary environmental issues threatening natural sustainability and food security globally. It affects agriculture in terms of yield and land cultivation, as input for food production. Climate change, which is attributable to agricultural diversity and production in Africa is crucial to development and sustenance. Studies reveal that climate change is expected to induce health problems directly and indirectly. The direct effects are evident in persistence and resistance to treatment of certain illnesses.
Effects of Climate Change
- Persistent droughts and floods
- Dry spells resulting in declining agricultural productivity
- Dry lakes/water body resulting in less water supplies for use in agriculture and hydro power generation
- Declining rainfall especially in the north increasing desertification
Prevention and control measures
- Inculcation of green attitude such as planting of trees, flowers, cover crops etc
- Land reclamation
- Effective waste management
- Control of land, water, noise and air pollution.
- Advocacy programmes through trainings, workshops, campaigns and formation of eco clubs and local action groups
- Use of more energy efficient sources of power generation such as briquette, electricity, solar etc.
- Educate future generation
- Get actively involved in the efforts to reduce climate change